Psychometric Properties

The SLQ© has demonstrated acceptable reliability scores and has demonstrated content, face, predictive and discriminate validity in statistical evaluations.  

Reliability. Following each administration of the SLQ, the items were subject to empirical analyses followed by discussions conducted in an iterative fashion until the statements were representative of the strategic Leadership construct and ongoing analysis and refinements in the instrument continue. Table 1 presents the means, standard deviations and Cronbach Alpha’s for the SLQ Version1 and Version2.    

Table 1. Means, Standard Deviations and Reliability Coefficients of the Subscales of the Strategic Leadership Questionnaire: Version1, 2007 and Version2, 2008.


 Internal reliabilities were assessed through the standardized Cronbach’s Alpha  .70 value generally considered to indicate a sufficient reliability by classical psychometric authorities (Nunnally, 1978; Peterson, 1994). Reliability statistics for the SLQv1 range between .71 and .77 for the subscales and .89 for the total scale. The SLQv2 yielded Cronbach Alpha scores of Transforming .958, Managerial .950, Political.939, and Ethical .949. The SLQ© appears free of cultural bias.

Factor Structure. The SLQv1 was not subjected to factor analyses due to low case numbers. Revisions were made in the items and they were retested in version 2. The SLQv2 was subjected to a principle axis factoring method with iterative communality estimation and oblimin with Kaiser Normalization rotation. By factoring the 77 questions on the SLQ©v2, four interpretable factors consistent with strategic leadership theory were obtained. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was .946, and the four factors extracted explained 65.4 percent of the variance. Values less than the .20 threshold were suppressed and not reported on the table.

As seen on Table 2, the managing and transforming action sets yielded one factor which we are calling Man/Trans. SL theory identifies two independent action sets as an ideal type but in actual use proposes that leader’s - lead- manage – lead – manage - in an iterative fashion. The Lead/Man factor indicates that for the population studied with SLQv2 – school principals – the responsibilities are not sufficiently disparate to break into two independent factors. A study of upper echelon leaders needs to be undertaken to determine if in fact the factor remains as a combination of transforming and managing. The political action sets yielded two separate factors which we have called bridging and bartering. The ethical action set yielded one factor which we call bonding. These results are consistent with SL theory and the further delineation of the political action set is seen as an improvement.

Table 2. Factor Structure (Factor Loadings) for the STQv4. (n=328) 

#Factors Item
 Msn / TransBridgesBondsBartersStem: How often does the person use the Actions
72.908 -.219 Holds us accountable for results.
71.854   Evaluates individual performance.
44.796   Sets time lines for our work.
55.750   Helps us develop a shared vision.
38.743   Provides structure for my work unit.
60.731   Promotes conversation with us about the future and our ability to meet it.
15.728   Makes professional learning a priority.
65.712 .254 Works to create a shared vision.
50.704   Specifies team goals.
68.698 .235 Promotes our commitment to our organization’s long-term goals.
23.694 .203 Helps us to enhance our professional learning as a group.
17.688   Specifies individual goals.
70.688 .255 Aids us in shaping ideas.
51.677 .234 Helps us to enhance our professional learning as individuals.
7.636 .238 Helps us to visualize future possibilities.
37 .855  
Develops alliances with people from outside of the organization.
73 .834  Maintains alliances with people of power and influence
35 .759  Strengthens his/her position by gaining the allegiance of others inside the organization
56 .716  Develops alliances with people from inside the organization.
41 .693-.229 Uses influence to advance his/her agenda.
47 .642  Has access to people who have influence over getting things done.
25 .611  Associates him/herself with individuals who have influence.
36 .454  Makes us question our beliefs about how things are working.
3 .382  Allocates resources to influence his/her purposes.
5  .917 Is honest with us.
13  .840 Does the right thing.
43  .820 Can be trusted to do the right thing.
16  .693 Makes decisions by following policy.
67  .602 Respects our privacy.
14  .579 Ensures that procedures are followed.
2  .485 Helps us try to keep promises.
27  .419 Stands firm on decisions based on principle.
45   .779Gives something in exchange for help.
49   .762Gives rewards when s/he is helped.
24   .623Promises rewards to get what s/he wants
77   .622Compromises to make deals.
11  .216.468Willing to barter to make deals.

Extraction Method: Principal Axis Factoring. Rotation Method: Oblimin with Kaiser Normalization. Rotation converged in 17 iterations. Values less than the .20 threshold were suppressed

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